Cardinal Surveys Company

TRAC-III  Annulus Production Logging


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PROCEDURE - WELL PREPARATION Annulus Tools

Introduction

Production logs have long been used as a reliable source of information to optimize profits on flowing wells. Cardinal's TRAC-III has made this proven service available to a large number of wells that could not have been logged in the past. Annular production logging is possibly the best means of acquiring "real time" data of dynamic producing conditions in wells with rod pumps. Click for Adobe Acrobat format Trac III paper or other literature.

The TRAC-III System was designed from conception to maximize operational success and data quality. The TRAC-III logging string consists of a Scintillation Gamma Ray Detector, (micro-processor controlled) Radioactive Ejector, Collar Locator, Capacitance Probe, Caliper, and Temperature Tool. All sensors are housed in 7/8" O.D. cases to facilitate passage down the tubing annulus.

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Some benefits of running TRAC-III's are:

The TRAC-III System has been designed for wells with 5?" casing and 27/8" tubing. The system can also be used on any combination of bigger casing or smaller tubing.

It is possible to run the tools down the annulus between 4?" casing and 23/8" tubing. No pressure control can be used at surface with this configuration and the well preparation is quite entailed. However, it is not impossible. We have successfully logged down 4?" and 23/8" to 13,100' in Crane County Texas.


Well Parameters For Example Procedure
Production 30 BPD Oil 140 BPD Water 10 MCFD Gas
Surface Pressure <50 PSI Casing 5.5"
Tubing 2.875" Pump 5500'
Perforations 5600' - 6000' PBTD 6100'

Cardinal Surveys Company
Annular TRAC-III ? Procedure
Fantasy Oil, Inc. Fox Gusher #45

The following procedure represents the fundamental steps needed to accomplish most TRAC-III ? applications. However, due to the investigative nature of production logging, it must be noted that the following procedure may be modified at any point in order to optimize the definition of events or abnormalities. This procedure should be considered as a general plan of action.

  1. Conduct tailgate safety meeting to identify location hazards, review well information, review test objectives, and make necessary plans to maximize safety and test results. 
  2. Rig up Cardinal Surveys logging unit on Fox Gusher #45 and conduct the pre-job wellhead radiation survey.
  3. Attach Cardinal Surveys 7/8" O. D. TRAC-III ? tool string which consists of a Rope Socket (.875" x 15" with a 5/8" fishing neck), Capacitance Tool (.875" x 40"), Caliper (.875" x 69"), Collar Locator (.875" x 28.5"), Scintillation Gammaray Detector (.875" x 60"), Microprocessor Controlled Ejector (.875" x 75.5") with I-131 as the tracer isotope, and a Temperature Tool (.875" x 37").
  4. Shut down pump jack and lock in place.
  5. Determine means of pressure control (hand packoff or lubricator) and implement.
  6. RIH with TRAC-III ? tool string into the tubing annulus.
  7. Release and activate pump jack.
  8. Run Pumping Temperature and CCL Logs from 5,500 to 6,100.
  9. Run Gammaray and CCL Logs from 6,100 to 5,500. Correlate Gammaray and CCL logs to supplied correlation log. Adjust depth measurement from Wireline Depth to Measured Depth.
  10. Return TRAC-III ? logging string to T.D. at 6,100 and run Capacitance Log from 6,100 to 5,500.
  11. Return TRAC-III ? logging string to T.D. at 6,100 and run Caliper from 6,100 to 5,500.
  12. Place TRAC-III ? logging string above the zone of interest 5600 - 6000 and eject a slug of radioactive material. As the slug travels up hole with the flow, make at least 3 passes through the material with the recorder set to depth drive. Note the delta times from peak to peak. This will allow for a 100% velocity reading.
  13. Repeat step 12 two more times.
  14. Repeat step 12 in areas between perforated intervals or between areas of interest in the openhole section. Please refer to the caliper results from 5600 - 6000 when placing the radioactive slugs. Try to avoid areas of drastic I. D. change to minimize the error in the velocity measurements.
  15. Eject a slug of radioactive material below the zone 5600 - 6000 and above T.D. at 6,100. Eject the slug as low as possible if there is no rathole. Make several passes through the material to determine if there is any flow coming from below T.D. in the wellbore.
  16. Shut down pump jack and shut-in production.
  17. Allow well to remain static for approximately one hour.
  18. Run a Shut-in Temperature Log from 5,500 to 6,100.
  19. Cross Flow Checks, shoot a series of radioactive slugs approximately 50 feet apart across the zone 5600 - 6000 and make timed passes through all the slugs at the same time to determine if there is any cross flow between zones.
  20. Run a Shut-in Temperature Log from 5,500 to 6,100 approximately 2 hours after the well has been shut-in.
  21. It may be desirable to pull a Shut-in Capacitance Log at this point from 6,100 to 5,500.
  22. POOH with Cardinal Survey's 7/8" O.D. TRAC-III ? production logging tool string.
  23. Rig down equipment, return well to pumping status, and conduct the post job wellhead radiation survey.
  24. Contact the Fantasy Oil, Inc. field representative to give preliminary results and the current status of Fox Gusher #45.

Well Preparation

Animation Check Sheet

The one key factor in rigging up for an Annulus TRAC-III is that you must have strick, vertical clearance above the annulus valve. We must be able to lower the logging sonde directly into the valve.

Example Configurations
Click on the images for larger pictures.
Click on image for bigger picture.
5.5" Casing
2.875" Tubing
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Running TRAC-III
through packoff.
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4.5" Casing
2.375" Tubing
Trac III with Lub
With Lubricator (and riser)

youtube video of truck

 running a Trac III Annular Log 


Well Head

Turn Down Collars (Special Clearance Collars)
We recommend that the tubing couplings be tapered on each end (20 - 30 degrees) - see this document.  Even better, you can install special clearance collars which are slightly smaller than normal collars.  See this picture.  And see this drawing.  These collars are tapered and have about 150 thousandths removed.  This will make it much easier to get tools in and out of the well, and in the case of deeper, crooked wells, will prevent incomplete services.  This is the best alternative for getting the tools in and out.  Bulldog Specialties  can supply special clearance collars in J-80, N-80 and L-80.  They are manufactured by Tejas Tubular.  Bulldog is a whole-sale supplier, but most of the major supply companies can get the Tejas couplings through Bulldog.  (Click on the following logos.)
                     BullDog Specialties          
Install Flange
Attach the "dual completion flange" where the annular opening is pointed directly away from the pumping unit. Don't position the annular opening under the flow line or bleed line.
Install Annular Valve
Be sure to attach the annular valve prior to configuring the production string. The tight fit will not allow you to screw the valve in. Some customers don't rig up a valve on the annulus. Cardinal does not recommend this practice! That valve is our last option in an emergency situtation.
Plumb Out Tee & Stuffing Box
On most wells you will have to install an "Slimline Suffing Box" and "Slimline Pumping Tee". There must be nothing hanging out over the annulus valve. It can be a frustrating experience when preparing for an Annular Log for the first time. Experiment with various connections until you can determine what works best with your type of wellheads. Be sure and check the valve clearance with a piece of black pipe or large sucker rod as you go.  Our logging tools are over 20 feet long, and we need a straight shot into the well.
Overhead Clearance
Remove the bridle gaurd from the horses head and any other overhead objects that could obstruct us. Our logging string can be as long as 20 to 30 feet.
Location
We must be able to back our logging unit up to within 2 to 3 feet of the wellhead. Please remove any tubing, B.O.P., etc.. from the location.
Stabilization
Stable producing conditions are crucial to running a TRAC-III that will give insight to the well's normal production characteristics. This is important when the test objective is to see the production profile. It is also important for determining the effects of a past stimulation that has not performed as expected.
If we run a TRAC-III immediately after the well is configured, it will only tell us what the well does at that particular point in time. You want to allow the production to stabilize, unless (drum roll) you have had a sudden, big increase in your water production.
It does not matter if this increase of water production was brought on by a stimulation, direct channel from an offset injector, or natural causes. Get busy, prepare your well for a TRAC-III and call Cardinal. Time is critical. Don't wait for stabilization. There is a strong possibility this new water is from a higher pressure source than anything you've been producing. In these situations we regularly see crossflow into the proven oil zones. We need to find the water source so that you can take remedial action. Remember, you will have to pump out all those barrels of water that cross flowed in before you will get your production back.

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Procedure
Well Preparation
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